If a disputed transaction cannot be resolved within the chargeback stage, either the issuer or the acquirer may take the case to Arbitration. An Arbitration is preceded by Pre-Arbitration to provide a window of opportunity to resolve the dispute before approaching the Scheme. In Arbitration, the card scheme decides which party is liable. The Issuer can file for Arbitration if you decline the Pre-Arbitration in the case of VISA Collaboration Disputes and MasterCard Chargebacks. We will take a decision to file for Arbitration in case the Issuer declines the Pre-Arbitration we create for VISA Allocation Disputes based on evidence and information you provide.